Adrenaline: the body’s”emergency hormone”

Epinephrine, also known as adrenomedullary hormone, is a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla and is also a neurotransmitter. This chemical plays a vital role in our bodies, especially when dealing with stress and dangerous situations.
When our bodies experience an emergency, such as a threat or sudden stress, adrenaline is rapidly released. Its functions are wide-ranging and important, including increasing heart rate, increasing cardiac output, dilating bronchial tubes, etc. to help us cope with emergencies. Simply put, adrenaline puts our bodies into “fight or flight” mode in response to possible threats.
In addition, adrenaline also affects the body’s metabolism. It can promote glycogen decomposition, increase blood sugar, and promote fat decomposition, allowing the body to obtain more energy in a short period of time. This is why in emergencies, people can explode with extraordinary strength and speed.
Adrenaline isn’t all good, however. If it remains at a high level for a long time, it may have adverse effects on the body, such as causing high blood pressure, heart disease, anxiety and other problems. Therefore, maintaining physical and mental health and learning to regulate stress appropriately are keys to maintaining normal adrenaline levels.
Overall, adrenaline is an important hormone in our body that plays an integral role in helping us cope with stressful and dangerous situations. However, we also need to pay attention to its possible negative effects and reasonably adjust the stress of life and work to maintain normal levels of adrenaline and thus maintain our health.
In the medical field, epinephrine is also often used as emergency medicine. For example, in emergencies such as anaphylactic shock, injecting epinephrine can quickly relieve symptoms and save lives. However, the use of this drug requires the guidance and supervision of a professional doctor to avoid possible side effects and risks.

Epinephrine API: Understand its effects, preparation and applications
Adrenaline API, as a key biologically active substance, has a wide range of applications in the medical field. This article aims to deeply discuss the basic knowledge, preparation methods, pharmacological effects of epinephrine raw materials and its important applications in modern medicine.

1. Basic knowledge of epinephrine raw materials
Epinephrine, also known as epinephrine or epinephrine, is a hormone and neurotransmitter secreted by the adrenal medulla. It is an anti-shock vasoactive drug, used for the rescue of cardiac arrest and anaphylactic shock, and can also be used for the treatment of other allergic diseases (such as bronchial asthma, urticaria). Combined with insulin, atropine, potassium chloride, etc., it can also be used to treat bronchospasm caused by allergic asthma.

2. Preparation method of epinephrine API
The preparation of epinephrine raw materials is usually achieved by chemical synthesis. Its synthetic route is complex and requires high-precision equipment and strict operating procedures to ensure product quality and purity. The synthesis process involves multi-step chemical reactions, and each step requires precise control of reaction conditions and the proportion of raw materials. Finally, through crystallization, filtration, drying and other process steps, an epinephrine API whose purity meets medicinal standards is obtained.

3. Pharmacological effects of epinephrine API
Adrenaline API mainly acts on adrenergic α and β receptors, producing strong, rapid and short-lived excitatory α and β-type effects. Excitation of cardiac β1-receptors can enhance myocardial contractility, accelerate heart rate, and increase myocardial consumption. Oxygen increases. At the same time, it acts on skeletal muscle β2-receptors to dilate blood vessels, reduce peripheral vascular resistance and reduce diastolic blood pressure. Exciting β2-receptors can relax bronchial smooth muscles, dilate bronchi, and relieve bronchospasm; excitating α-receptors can shrink blood vessels in the skin, mucous membranes, and small visceral blood vessels.

4. Application of epinephrine API
1. Rescue anaphylactic shock: such as anaphylactic shock caused by penicillin. Because this product has the effects of stimulating myocardium, raising blood pressure, and relaxing bronchial smooth muscle, it can relieve symptoms of anaphylactic shock such as weak heartbeat, decreased blood pressure, and difficulty breathing.
2. Rescue cardiac arrest: It can be used for cardiac arrest caused by accidents during anesthesia and surgery, drug poisoning, or heart block. Intracardiac injection of 0.25 to 0.5 mg is performed, and cardiac massage, artificial respiration and correction are performed at the same time. Acidemia.
3. Treatment of bronchial asthma: The effect is rapid but not lasting. Subcutaneous injection of 0.25 to 0.5 mg takes effect in 3 to 5 minutes, but can only last for 1 hour. The injection can be repeated once if necessary.
4. Combined with local anesthetics: Adding a small amount (about 1:200,000 to 500,000) to local anesthetics (such as procaine) can reduce the absorption of local anesthetics, prolong their efficacy, and reduce their toxic and side effects. It can also reduce bleeding at the surgical site.
5. To prevent bleeding of nasal mucosa and gums: fill the bleeding area with gauze soaked in (1:20,000 to 1:1,000) solution.
6. To treat urticaria, hay fever, serum reactions, etc.: subcutaneously inject 0.2 to 0.5 ml of 1:1000 solution, and if necessary, inject again at the above dosage.

5. Summary
As an important pharmaceutical raw material, epinephrine API plays a key role in many medical fields. Its preparation method is complex and requires high-precision technical control to ensure the quality and safety of the drug. By in-depth understanding of the pharmacological effects and application scenarios of epinephrine raw materials, we can better understand the importance of this pharmaceutical raw material in modern medicine.

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